4.1.1 Crisis in the Classical World:

Explain the responses to common forces of change that led to the ultimate collapse of classical empires and discuss the consequences of their collapse. (See 4.3.3; 4.3.4; 4.3.5)

4.1.2 World Religions:

Using historical and modern maps and other documents, analyze the continuing spread of major world religions during this era and describe encounters between religious groups including
  • Islam and Christianity (Roman Catholic and Orthodox) – increased trade and the Crusades
  • Islam and Hinduism in South Asia (See 5.3.3)
  • continuing tensions between Catholic and Orthodox Christianity

4.1.3 Trade Networks and Contacts:

Analyze the development, interdependence, specialization, and importance of interregional trading systems both within and between societies including
  • land-based routes across the Sahara, Eurasia and Europe
  • water-based routes across Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf, South China Sea, Red and Mediterranean Seas