4.3.1 Africa to 1500:

Describe the diverse characteristics of early African societies and the significant changes in African society by:
  • Comparing and contrasting at least two of the major states/civilizations of East, South, and West Africa (Aksum, Swahili Coast, Zimbabwe, Ghana, Mali, Songhai) in terms of environmental, economic, religious, political, and social structures.
  • Using historical and modern maps to identify the Bantu migration patterns and describe their contributions to agriculture, technology, and language.
  • Analyzing the African trading networks by examining trans-Saharan trade in gold and salt and connect these to interregional patterns of trade.
  • Analyzing the development of an organized slave trade within and beyond Africa.
  • Analyzing the influence of Islam and Christianity on African culture and the blending of traditional African beliefs with new ideas from Islam and Christianity.

4.3.2 The Americas to 1500:

Describe the diverse characteristics of early American civilizations and societies in North, Central, and South America by comparing and contrasting the major aspects (government, religion, interactions with the environment, economy, and social life) of American Indian civilizations and societies such as the Maya, Aztec, Inca, Pueblo, and/or Eastern Woodland peoples.

4.3.3 China to 1500:

Explain how Chinese dynasties responded to the internal and external challenges caused by ethnic diversity, physical geography, population growth and Mongol invasion to achieve relative political stability, economic prosperity, and technological innovation.

4.3.4 The Eastern European System and the Byzantine Empire to 1500:

Analyze restructuring of the Eastern European system including:
  • The rise and decline of the Byzantine Empire
  • The region's unique spatial location
  • The region's political, economic, and religious transformation
  • Emerging tensions between East and West

4.3.5 Western Europe to 1500:

Explain the workings of feudalism, manoralism, and the growth of centralized monarchies and city-states in Europe including:
  • The role and political impact of the Roman Catholic Church in European medieval society.
  • How agricultural innovation and increasing trade led to the growth of towns and cities.